The exploitation of the phosphate mines constitutes the main economic activity of the governorate. This ore, which constitutes the wealth of the region, is exploited by the Compagnie de Phosphate de Gafsa (CPG). Thus and thanks to a phosphate production estimated at 8 million tonnes per year, Tunisia occupies 5th place among the 12 main phosphate producing countries in the world.
In addition to mining, Gafsa has a chemical industrial activity based on the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers at the M'dhilla unit. This activity is managed by the Tunisian Chemical Group.
The transformation of phosphate has enabled Tunisia to be the second country in the world to recover a large percentage of its natural phosphate production (85%).
The region also has 65 industrial companies (with 10 jobs or more), 16 of which are totally exporters. Likewise, Gafsa comprises 10 companies with foreign participation (with 10 jobs and more) which operate in manufacturing industries.
The abundance of hydraulic resources in the region has favored the development of the agricultural sector which is based mainly on rustic arboriculture and sheep and goat breeding.
Indeed, Gafsa includes 106,377 ha of fruit trees: olives, almonds, pistachios and figs, 202,000 ha of arable land and a herd of around 350,000 heads (sheep, cattle, goats and camels).
In recent years, a very promising new activity has developed, largely intended for export, namely post-season vegetable crops (potatoes, cucumbers, etc.).